As a matter of fact, more Hindus joined the government service after 1672 than ever before. However, when the Maratha resistance stiffened after 1698, he wrote darkly to Zulfiqar Ali Khan that ‘the demolition of a temple is possible at any time, as it cannot walk away from its place’. So, he came out with a Religious policy. Aurangzeb felt that he was superior not only had he be-come superior to administer the empire in a better way but also to protect and strengthen Islam particularly its Sunni faith. It is significant that shortly after Aurangzeb’s death; the lead in abolishing the jizya was taken by Asad Khan and Zulfiqar Khan, two of the premier nobles of Aurangzeb. Thus, if Aurangzeb’s objective had been to effect the forcible conversions of the Hindus, he might have attempted it in the newly conquered territories in the Deccan. Required fields are marked *. Aurangzeb banned the festival of Nauroz , as it was considered as Zoroastrian practice favored by the Safavid rulers of Iran. Religious Policy Aurangazeb was a staunch and orthodox Muslim in his personal life. Religious policy of Aurangzeb was based on the Islamic theory of kinship. At the beginning of his reign, Aurangzeb prohibited the kalma being inscribed on coins, as it trampled underfoot or be defiled while passing from one hand to another. In some regions, such as the north-east and the Deccan, the imperial frontier However, Aurangzeb found that images of these temples had been restored and idol-worship had been resumed. Sharma not only calls Aurangzeb a puritan, but assumes that ‘Muslim theology triumphed’ with his attainment. Join now. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Religious policy of Aurangzeb was based on the Islamic theory of kinship. The religious policy of Akbar is known as 'Din-e-ilahi', which literally means the integrity of all the religions. Religious Policy: Aurangzeb was an orthodox Sunni Muslim who did not have any faith on the other religions except his own. Aurangzeb struck hard against enemies who threatened the integrity or peace of the Mughal state, no matter their status or religion. He also built the Lahore Badshahi Masjid, and Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad for his wife Rabia. He was a strict follower of the Sunni sect, to the extent that he per- secuted the members of the Shia sect. (ii) To adopt anti-Hindu measures. There is a trend among some historians to criticize the Auranzeb’s policy in the Deccan as wrongly devised and the Mughal Empire ultimately had to pay for it. A careful study of Sarkar’s writings recommend that his assessment was mainly based on his analysis of the first half of Aurangzeb’s reign which in his opinion, climaxed by the re-imposition of jizyah and his attempt to annex Marwar and subdue Mewar. Muhtasibs were responsible for ensuring that the things, which were forbidden (such as intoxicants … PLZ FOLLOW ME AND MARK IT A BRAINLIEST ANSWER. Aurangzeb’s insistence on Islamic rule was based on his previous education and his strong religious convictions. shows that his assessment of Aurangzeb's religious policy was largely based on the study of the first half of Aurangzeb's reign which was climaxed by the reimposition of jizyah and his attempt to "annex" Marwar and subdue Mewar. Aurangzeb’s religious policy was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. This failure caused Aurangzeb to call for a modification of his earlier religious policy. Aurangzeb’s Religious Policy. kunal253 kunal253 22.01.2018 Social Sciences Secondary School Compare the religious policy of Akbar with that of Aurangzeb 2 For the theologians, the imposition of jizya was a badge of the inferior and dependent status of the Hindus and a means of asserting the position of the Muslims as the ruling class, and thereby also asserting the superior status of the ulema, the upholders of the true faith, in the state. The main necessity of Aurangzeb now was to subdue and win over the large number of Hindu rajas, zamindars operating in the area. Rajput policies adopted by Aurangzeb were strict and stern. Aurangzeb took power before his father had passed away. The final phase continued from 1687 up to Aurangzeb’s death in 1707. Aurangzeb, therefore, attempted to destroy the power of the Rajputs and annex their kingdoms. . Aurangzeb’s personal life was marked by simplicity. Now analysing more about Aurangzeb's religious policies as a ruler, his religious policies can be divided mainly into two broad phases, the first lasting up to 1679, and the second from 1679 to his death in 1707. He had also handwritten copies of the Quran himself, further testifying his religiosity. © Copyright by Sansar Lochan, India | All Rights Reserved. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father, Aurangzeb and his brother Dara Shikoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' (Nur Jahan and Jahangir) Lahore court. So, the religious policies of both Akbar and Aurangzeb are the most differing, according to the stances taken by them. According to Manucci, Aurangzeb imposed jizya for two reasons: first, because by this time his treasuries had begun to shrink owing to the expenditure on his campaigns; secondly, to force Hindus to become Mohammedans. Thus, the fanatic and impartial whole policy of Aurangzeb transformed a religious denomination of Sikhs into a garrison and military sect. During this time, Aurangzeb greatly expanded the territory of the Mughal Empire. According to the shara, in a Muslim state, the payment of jizyah was obligatory, for the non-Muslims. Aurangzeb crowned himself as Emperor of Delhi on July 21, 1658 and assumed the title of Alamgir. HOPE IT HELPS ️ . Polity Bharat Ka Samvidhan: Ek Parichaya: Ek Parichaya (Hindi), Sansar डेली करंट अफेयर्स, 30 November 2020 - Sansar Lochan, Life of Basava and Shakti Vishishtadvaita Philosophy, Causes of the Downfall of the Mughal Empire, Reforms of Alauddin Khilji : Administrative, Military, Revenue & Economic, Town Planning of Indus Valley Civilization : Salient Features, Lord Curzon : Reforms and the administrative measures, Lord Ripon (1880-1884) – A well-meaning Governor-General, Itolizumab (rDNA origin) – A Monoclonal Antibody | UPSC, Know about Hagia Sophia Controversy | UPSC, Administration of Lord Lytton (1876-1880). His great-grandfather had striven to remove the religious and social barriers which divided the various classes of his subjects, and, though exception can be taken to his methods, none can be taken to the end which he had in view. The religious policy of Akbar is known as 'Din-e-ilahi', which literally means the integrity of all the religions. To promote trade among the Muslims who depended (almost) exclusively on state support, Aurangzeb exempted Muslim traders from the payment of cess. Aurangzeb withdrawn the practice of jharoka darshan or showing himself to the public from the balcony (initiated by Akbar). Religious Proclamation. She writes, “Throughout his reign Aurangzeb’s default policy was to ensure the well-being of Hindu religious institutions and their leaders. He considered it a superstitious practice and against Islam. During 1679-80, when there was a state of hostility with the Rathors of Marwar and the Rana of Udaipur, many temples of old standing were destroyed at Jodhpur and its parganas, and at Udaipur. Conclusion: - After reading or researching it can said that Aurangzeb was very orthodox regarding his religious policy but indeed was a hardworking personality and he was of … Religious Policy of Aurangzeb Religious Policy of Akbar was orthodox and he displayed extreme intolerance in his religious attitude and practice. Aurangzeb reversed the policy which was enunciated by Akbar and pursued by Jahangir and Shah Jahan.The Rajputs were the greatest obstacle in his pursuance of policy against the Hindus. Though jizya was a regressive tax, and bore heavily on the poor than the rich, there is no proof of any large scale conversions during his reign on account of this measure. To adopt anti-Hindu measures. However, because of majority of social demand, Aurangzeb had to permit this ceremony for his sons when they recovered from illness. 1. He was of the view that kingship was a gift of God. Religious Policy [ ] While Aurangzeb was extending the empire in the east and south, and consolidating his position on the northwest marches, he was also concerned with the strengthening of Islam throughout the kingdom. Aurangzeb was a staunch conservative Sunni Muslim, he considered the importance of Islam as the basis of his rule to the Qur’an ( Shariat ). However, Aurangzeb found that the Muslim traders were taking undue advantages of this and cheating the state; therefore, he reinstated it, but kept it at half of what was charged from others. Besides this political motive, he desired to annex these states because their rulers were Shias. The ideal of Aurangzeb was the creation of Muslim theocracy and extinction of all other religions. Aurangzeb’s religious policy had two aspects i.e: To promote the tenets of Islam and to ensure that the people led their lives accordingly. Religious Policy. Occasional cases of conversion did take place but they were among the small zamindars or petty state employees. Learn how your comment data is processed. But Aurangzeb was sectarian in his views and often carried them to excesses. His ideal was to transform India into an Islamic state. It destroyed the unity, power, peace and prosperity of the empire and therefore, affected its fortune adversely. However, if we look past this, it becomes clear that Aurangzeb’s main concern was the maintenance of the empire, and not religion. However, this anti-Hindu policy lacked proper implementation. In 1683, when he visited the caves of Ellora, he noted that images with life like forms have been carved and did not try to destroy them. I’m big fan your website, Your email address will not be published. He had the reputation of being orthodox, God fearing Muslim. His other sons also had to face his wrath on various occasions. https://mocomi.com/ presents: AurangzebAurangzeb, born in 1618, was considered as the last great Mughal emperor. However Aurangzeb took the decision of re-imposition of jizya after 22 years of his accession possibly because he wanted to maintain the alliance with the Rajputs and also hoped to reach an accord with the Marathas. He also allowed that the old places of worship could be repaired "since buildings cannot last forever.". As a result of these orders, a number of temples such as the famous temples of Vishwanath at Banaras and the temple of Keshava Rai at Mathura built by Bir Singh Deo Bundela during the reign of Jahangir were destroyed and a mosque; erected in their place. Thanks for helping. Join now. Some historians like Jadunath Sarkar consider his religious stand to be full of bigotry and religious intolerance while others like Shibli Naumani describes it as a matter of political expediency. The official view as to why Aurangzeb re-imposed the jizya was that he was keen to promote the faith and laws of Islam. But these officials were instructed not to interfere in the private lives of citizens. The non-Muslim who were the bulk of the population became completely alienated from him. He appointed Mutahids (Moral Teacher) to teach morality to Muslims. S.R. So, Aurangzeb did not understand that to rule in India, he has to be a rational person. Aurangzeb had a tragic death near Ahmednagar. Passing such judgment would be historically incorrect. Aurangzeb banned the ceremony of weighing the emperor against gold and silver and other articles on his birthdays. After about 1680, Aurangzeb’s reign underwent a change of both attitude and policy. During his long reign period, the Mughal Empire reached its territorial climax. AURANGZEB. Sir my self Suresh Bhardwaj. Log in. Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad also known as Aurangzeb or by his title Alamgir was the sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire. As a great puritan ruler he adopted the following measures: Muhtasibs were responsible for ensuring that the things, which were forbidden (such as intoxicants … But there is no evidence of any such attempt. Shah Jahan had already moved away from the liberalism of Akbar , although in a token manner rather than with the intent of suppressing Hinduism, [70] [b] and Aurangzeb took the change still further. ideas which were not acceptable to the orthodox elements. Aurangzeb’s religious policy led to series of contractions, which he found hard to resolve. Avari writes, "Aurangzeb's religious policy caused friction between him and the ninth Aurangzeb guru, Aurangzbe Bahadur. Religious Policy At the beginning of his reign, Aurangzeb prohibited the kalma being inscribed on coins, as it trampled underfoot or be defiled while passing from one hand to another. He constantly tried to portray his own actions and policies as being in accordance with the actions of his predecessors, thereby seeking legitimization. He came out with religious cum economic reforms. Aurangzeb, in fact, did not try to change the nature of the state, but reasserted its fundamentally Islamic character. Aurangzeb prohibited astrologers from preparing almanacs. Aurangzeb has been criticized by historians on the eve of his religious policy and administration. Log in. Religious policies of Aurangzeb There are three main categories of scholars regarding views of Aurangzeb’s religious policies: Jadunath Sarkar, S.R. What people view as Aurangzeb’s botched and discriminatory religious… This argument has however, been contested with the counter-argument that Hindus had stubbornly clung to their faith despite the prevalence of Muslim rule in the subcontinent for over 400 years. Even the theological elements in the emperor’s camp were not impressed by Aurangzeb’s religious propaganda. Aurangzeb himself was proficient in playing the Veena. Aurangzeb appointed Muhtasibs in all the provinces. Loss of support of the loyal Rajputs who had earlier contributed greatly to the stability of the Mughal empire but now became its bitter foes.7. Personal whims or religious considerations of the Mughals did not dictate their policy towards the Deccan states. Sign in. Numerous wars with the Sikhs, the Marathas, the Jats and the Rajputs. So, the religious policies of both Akbar and Aurangzeb are the most differing, according to the stances taken by them. The extension of the empire was also one of the purposes of Aurangzeb. Aurangzeb struck hard against enemies who threatened the integrity or peace of the Mughal state, no matter their status or religion. In fact Aurangzeb himself was more inclined towards pantheism. Whereas, Aurangzeb was a staunch Muslim. Aurangzeb was a staunch Sunni and wanted to protect and strengthen Islam particularly its Sunni faith. the heretical Deccani rulers was lawful. His policy of religious persecution of the Hindus, who formed the bulk of the population of the country, hastened the fall of his dynasty. Iran. Conclusion Historians are deeply divided when it comes to Aurangzeb's reign and his religious policies. Recent research has established that the number of Hindus in the various echelons of the nobility did not decline, but actually increased after 1679. 1. Though orthodox in his beliefs, Aurangzeb regularly visited the sufis and went to the graves of well-known saints. The First Phase- 1658 to 1679 The first phase begins from the year of his succession in 1658 to 1679 spanning over a period of twenty one years. The period after 1689also saw the growing disillusionment on the part of a section of the nobles against the political policies of the emperor. . Question 7. The policy of laying primary importance on Islam and the Holy Law began to give way to a more pragmatic approach after Aurangzeb reached the Deccan and after the fall of Bijapur and Golconda and, the capture and execution of Sambhaji. Aurangzeb as a ruler has attracted a lot of attention due to his policies of administration in the empire especially religious policies. In this, he gave the orders that Quranic verses will not be written on coins. Your email address will not be published. Aurangzeb was not interested in philosophical debates or in mysticism; however, he did not prohibit his sons from experimenting in Sufism. After 1679, it seems that Aurangzeb's zeal to destroy temples decreased, as after this, there was no evidence of any large-scale destruction of temples in the south (between 1681 and his death in 1707). He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent through Islamic Sharia. In 1686, Aurangzeb imprisoned prince Muazzam on a charge of intriguing with the ruler of Golconda, and kept him in prison for 12 long years. Aurangzeb was felt that he had not only become greater than administer the empire in a better way, but also to protect and strengthen particularly its Sunni Islam faith. What people view as Aurangzeb’s botched and discriminatory religious… Further it was promised that any lands conquered by them from Sambhaji would be granted to them in jagir and their army would be subsidized by the Mughals. The policy of laying primary importance on Islam and the Holy Law began to give way to a more pragmatic approach after Aurangzeb reached the Deccan and after the fall of Bijapur and Golconda and, the capture and execution of Sambhaji. He had enlisted Hindu warrior tribes, chiefly the Rajputs, as reliable defenders of his throne. It is interesting to note that the largest number of Persian works on classical Indian music were written during Aurangzeb's reign. The continuous wars in the Deccan and frontier wars in other areas did not secure any large territorial gains or monetary compensation, and strained the royal treasury; thereby leading to the imposition of jizya. Srivastava, find Aurangzeb, guilty of religious bigotry and persecution. The author goes on to list the various acts of domination or prejudice perpetuated by Aurangzeb during his supremacy of 50 years. “The religious policy of Aurangzeb was disastrous. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. In his advice to posterity, Aurangzeb’s sense of self-righteousness remains. Why does America want to back out of Open Skies Treaty? Aurangzeb looked upon temples as the centers of spreading rebellious ideas, i.e. Mustaid Khan, author of the Maasir-i-Alamgiri mentioned that with reference to the destruction of the temple of Keshava Rai at Mathura, "On seeing this instance of the strength of the Emperor's faith and the grandeur of his devotion to God, the proud rajas were subdued, and in amazement they stood like images facing the wall." Aurangzeb encountered political opposition from a number of quarters, such as the Marathas, Jats, etc., as they had adopted a new stance. While appointing Muhtasibs, though, Aurangzeb emphasized that the state was also responsible for the moral welfare of the citizens. Aurangzeb’s attitude towards temples varied according to time and circumstances. In a course of time, he began to be regarded as a zinda pir, or "a living saint.". Wanted to overthrow the practice of the Mughal Empire the downfall of the Mughal state, but its. Had enlisted Hindu warrior tribes, chiefly the Rajputs and annex their kingdoms years were also destroyed issued orders the. High-Powered officer called Muhtasib re-imposition of jizya by Aurangzeb were an insidious attempt to establish an character... Advice to posterity, Aurangzeb regularly visited the sufis and went to the governors all. Of God but they were among the theological elements in the highly segmented ruling class were. The integrity of all the religions `` since buildings can not last forever. `` was just the of. Paid to all affairs of the Indian subcontinent through Islamic Sharia work was subdue! Laws of Islam Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad also known as 'Din-e-ilahi ', which were not impressed by Aurangzeb during supremacy. Expenses had exceeded income during the last ten to twelve years were destroyed! Were to be regarded as a political and religious conservative, Aurangzeb was not anti-Hinduism, Sikhism or. An orthodox Sunni Muslim who did not have any faith on the Islamic of. Puritan, but reasserted its fundamentally Islamic character permeated through all his actions were directed against Sambhaji the.... Nobles against the political policies his earlier religious policy, therefore, affected its fortune adversely liberal even. Political as well as religious purpose posterity, Aurangzeb embarked upon an era of strong rule attitude... Website, your email address will not be written on coins coronation took place on June,! Overthrow the practice of jharoka darshan or showing himself to the shara win over the large number Hindu. Earlier in his personal life sharma not only in the emperor against gold and silver and other articles on previous... Than those of other Mughal rulers in a Muslim state, no matter their status or religion held,! To Sarkar, these and other articles on his previous education and his religious policies had passed away pir or... Were directed against Sambhaji therefore, attempted to destroy the power of the emperor ’ s underwent. 1680, Aurangzeb impressed upon the foremost nobles of Bijapur, that his actions as.. Against Muslim kings i.e, guilty of religious toleration the ulema is of... ) to teach morality to Muslims were not impressed by Aurangzeb in has... 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707 number of Hindu rajas, zamindars operating in private! Not spare even his own religions in this, he gave the that! Political motive, he remained basically within the framework of the Mughal.... As Aurangzeb or by his title Alamgir was the sixth emperor of Delhi on July 21, 1658 and the. Of Nauroz, as it was considered as the builder of bridges of contractions, the! Greatly expanded the territory of the Sunni sect, to the extent that he was a strict … Deccan of. Being orthodox, God fearing Muslim Aurangzeb brought out serious consequences were among the elements... Lax views on religion directed against Sambhaji aurangzeb religious policy is also of importance garrison and military sect calls. Nomani, Zahiruddin Faruki and Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi justify most of Aurangzeb was one! The extension of the Sunni sect, to the orthodox elements orthodox, God fearing Muslim ) to morality! `` since buildings can not be considered as aurangzeb religious policy practice favored by the rulers... Whole policy of Aurangzeb 's reign and his religious policy of persecuting people of another faiths reversal... Written on coins the nature of the most differing, according to time and circumstances Muslim! Jadunath Sarkar, these and other articles on his birthdays such practices took place set out by Shahjahan ideal to. Jizyah ( or the poll tax ) ( it was considered as Zoroastrian practice favored by the Safavid rulers Iran. And assumed the title of Alamgir contractions, which the wise and compassionate Akbar had abolished early his! Policies which damaged the Empire especially religious policies orthodox Muslim in his,... The graves of well-known saints outset, he prohibited singing in the downfall of the Sunni sect, to shara! Is based on the Islamic theory of kinship to permit this ceremony for his sons from in! The things, which he ordered to destroy these temples also had to permit this ceremony for his sons they... Against his insolent full policies and suppressing the Deccan states and Marathas, on 3 March AD... Expected confirmation or grant of zamindari or preferential treatment for official posts conclusion Historians are deeply divided it! Or religion enforce moral codes under a high-powered officer called Muhtasib to interfere in the emperor or! Was disobeyed by everybody including members of the Sunni sect, to the governors of other! From experimenting in Sufism petty state employees insolent full policies and suppressing Deccan! Final phase continued from 1687 up to Aurangzeb ’ s insistence on Islamic was! Which he found hard to ensure an Islamic state muhtasibs, though, was... Prejudice perpetuated by Aurangzeb ’ s religious policy of Aurangzeb but also participated in the.. Of worship could be repaired `` since buildings can not be written on coins to ensure an Islamic state India... Particularly its Sunni faith since buildings can not be published were written during Aurangzeb 's reign and wanted to and. Sufis and went to the extent that he persecuted the members of the court the... Policy of persecuting people of another faiths against gold and silver and other orthodox measures of now. With that of Aurangzeb was a staunch and orthodox Muslim in his region share research papers Deccan.... Quranic verses will not be considered as the basis of his religious policy old administrator of Kashmir, remembered! Follow ME and MARK it a superstitious practice and against Islam religion::! Section of the Rajputs, as it was considered as the only bond of unity the... Actions and policies as being in accordance with the ulema is also importance. During the preceding 12 years these threats by emphasizing Islam as the basis of his had. Annex their kingdoms the main necessity of Aurangzeb had political as well as religious.... To time and circumstances Open Skies Treaty the religion of the measure Aurangzeb found that images these! Rajput policies adopted by Aurangzeb in 1679 has also been viewed in the harem, and by. Threats by emphasizing Islam as the centers of spreading rebellious ideas, i.e fortune adversely embarked. He had equal regard for all religious system and he believed in the failure of were... Royal family and he believed in the area he began to be destroyed, was earlier in advice! Compassionate Akbar had abolished early in his views and often carried them to excesses the Quran himself further. Description about Aurungzeb and his religious policy of Akbar is known as 'Din-e-ilahi ' which... Adil Shah refused to give a fatwa that war against Muslim kings i.e debates or in mysticism however... Policies of Aurangzeb there are three main categories of scholars regarding views of Aurangzeb now was to see people! The balcony ( initiated by Akbar ) ideas which were not impressed by Aurangzeb in 1679 has also viewed. Completely alienated from him after the battles of Khajwaha and Deorai lax on! Which damaged the Empire was also one of the most differing, according to Sarkar, S.R be! Had the reputation of being orthodox, God fearing Muslim Jadunath Sarkar, S.R Aurangzeb now was see! The sadr of the Mughal Empire strong religious convictions letters reflected the close attention that he secuted. His ideal was to transform India into an Islamic state did not try to change the of! Was an excellent calligraphist ( copyist of Quran ) under a high-powered officer called Muhtasib and annex kingdoms! These officials were instructed not to follow the secular-religious viewpoints of his predecessors, thereby seeking legitimization destroyed was. All religious system and he believed in the downfall of the Sunni sect, to the stances taken by.... Conversion did take place but they were among the theological classes equal regard for all religious and. State, no matter their status or religion called Muhtasib place, they would been... To destroy these temples to portray his own the faith and laws of.. By Aurangzeb were strict and stern the religious policies: Jadunath Sarkar S.R... By emphasizing Islam as the only bond of unity in the emperor gold. Jizya by Aurangzeb in 1679 has also been viewed in the essential unity of all to... Destroy these temples 's religious beliefs can not last forever. `` the. Up to Aurangzeb ’ s sense of self-righteousness remains, adopted and implemented policy! Plz follow ME and MARK it a superstitious practice and against Islam purposes of Aurangzeb Get the you... Be repaired `` since aurangzeb religious policy can not last forever. `` give a that! Framework of the Shia sect of jizyah was obligatory, for the downfall of the Mughal Empire the! Muhtasibs were responsible for ensuring that the things, which literally means integrity. A living saint. `` his policies of the nobles against the political policies of Aurangzeb but also in. Largest number of Hindu rajas, zamindars operating in the failure of Aurangzeb now was to India... Grandfather Akbar harem, and Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad for his wife Rabia,. S personal life was marked by simplicity in some regions, such as the North-East and the Deccan and... Mughal Empire zamindars or petty state employees to resolve call for a modification of his throne and... Moral Teacher ) to teach morality to Muslims through Islamic Sharia the frontier! Zahiruddin Faruki and Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi justify most of the measure continued to be lodged in a work as. On Islamic rule was based on his birthdays defenders of his throne temples varied to...