This agitation resulted in both reforms and the sprouting of "African Initiated Churches." Emperor Augustus (63 B.C.E.--14 C.E.) Philip encountered a man from Ethiopia on a road leading from Jerusalem to Gaza. by Edward Smither, James Clarke, and Co., 2011. Origen, head of the School of Alexandria in the early third century, is also noted for compiling a comparison of six translations of the old testament—the Hexapla. Factors that led to the spread of Christianity in the apostolic age A bishopric was established by the disciple and gospel writer Mark when he established the Church of Alexandria around 49 C.E., and Mark is honored today as the person who brought Christianity to Africa. It is some of these Christians who stayed in the desert for prayers after the end of the persecution and founded Christian monasticism. One person who brought Christianity to an African is Philip, as recounted in Acts 8:26–40. Outside of the cities, life was less influenced by Roman culture. In his early years, he traveled extensively around the Mediterranean and studied the Greek philosophers. The term “North Africa”, in classical and early medieval times, meant essentially Proconsular Africa. (There was also the problem of increasing ethnic and social tensions which helped fractured the empire into what would become the Byzantium and Holy Roman Empire of … This meant, of course, that the otherwise 'open-minded' Roman Empire could no longer take a nonchalant attitude to Christianity—persecution, and repression of the religion soon followed, which in turn hardened the Christian converts to their cult. 2. The report, corroborated by the adoption of Christian symbolism on Ezana’s late coinage, and monotheistic as … As a Christian, I believe that God’s historical providence directed the events that led to Christianity’s development. The Main Factors in the Spread of Islam. In North Africa, however, Christianity was not merely eclipsed, it was supplanted. Many Messianic and syncretistic sections have also formed across the continent including the Nigerian Aladura churches and the Nazareth Baptist Church situated in South Africa. Missionaries first arrived at the court of Kabaka Muteesa in 1877, almost a century after the missionary impetus from Europe had begun. Factors such as educational, spiritual, social, cultural, economic, political, psychological, historical, geographical, etc., are from amongst the factors contributing to the widespread and acceptance of Islam b… • General History of Africa Volume 2: Ancient Civilizations of Africa (Unesco General History of Africa) ed. PIOneer mission in Africa greatly discouraged other volunteers who were wilting to come to Africa and carry out missionary work. This was due in large part because the missionaries used the native culture to raise up indigenous leaders to lead the churches. Answers. Important Africans who influenced the early development of Christianity include Tertullian, Perpetua, Felicity, Clement of Alexandria, Origen of Alexandria, Cyprian, Athanasius and Augustine of Hippo. Joshua Takes Steps Against The Spread Of Ebola All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com, The Origin And Growth Of Christianity In Africa, African Countries Where Christianity is the Largest Religion, Types Of Crimes By Number Of Offenses In The US, The 10 Biggest Shopping Malls In The World. From the seventh century onwards, Muslim traders from the Maghreb and the Sahara started settling first in some of the market centres in the Sahel and then in the Savanna areas. Cyrenaica (the easternmost part of Libya) was known as the Pentapolis, or the five towns: Cyrene (modern-day Shaḥḥāt), Apollonia (Marsa Gona), Ptolemaïs (Tolmeta), Berenice (Benghazi), and Barce (Barka). Christianity appealed to a disaffected Egyptian populous through its representations of resurrection, an afterlife, virgin birth, and the possibility that a god could be killed and brought back, all of which resonated with more ancient Egyptian religious practice. The Spread of Christianity and Factors that Contributed to the Political and Religious Separation of the Early Church One center was in Cyrenaica, within reach of the influence of Alexandria. While all civilizations have their moral systems, Christianity differed from the pagan religions in that its God was all-wise, all-knowing and was morally perfect (or so the Christians believed), and so for these reasons Christianity spread like a wild fire over the next few centuries. Romans were enticed by the availability of land for building estates and wealth, and during the first century C.E., north Africa was heavily colonized by Rome. It was partially due to this that the Roman Empire eventually split into two, east and west. Tertullian (c.160--c.220 C.E.) The religion is also present in some nations in the Northeast and also the Western region. A new attempt to spread Christianity was made when the Church Missionary Society (CMS) arrived from Britain in 1821. e g. the death of Coillard and his Wife in 1904 led to the collapse of the evangelical mission in Barotseland. Venn sought to develop an African Church by urging missionaries to move on after the seeds had been sown and leaving the native leaders to develop their church. By the time of Emperor Claudius (10 B.C.E.--45 C.E.) The spread of the religion was rapid and was due to many factors. The Nile Valley was feeding Rome. But, like Egypt, Africa and its neighbors Numidia and Mauritania (which were under the rule of client kings), were recognized as potential 'bread baskets'. Born in Carthage, a cultural center much influenced by Roman authority, Tertullian is the first Christian author to write extensively in Latin, for which he was known as the 'Father of Western Theology'. This explains why the death of one missionary leader would stop the whole of that missionary group from continuing with its work. Amongst people subdued by Roman authority in North Africa (Aegyptus, Cyrenaica, Africa, Numidia, and Mauritania) Christianity quickly became a religion of protest—it was a reason for them to ignore the requirement to honor the Roman Emperor through sacrificial ceremonies. While Christianity was made the … The reason why so many Africans are turning to Christianity is attributed to a number of factors include disillusionment with political systems and a natural attraction to religious worship. King Ezana of the Ethiopian/Eritrean Kingdom of Aksum gave Christianity official status and facilitated the establishment of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. Reportedly, the city boasted a very large Jewish community, which was located in close proximity to Jerusalem. • Chapter 1: 'Geographical and Historical Background' & Chapter 5: 'Cyprian, the "Pope" of Carthage', in Early Christianity in North Africa by François Decret, trans. CHRISTIANITY: CHRISTIANITY IN NORTH AFRICA Although we lack written sources, archaeological evidence suggests an early origin for the North African churches. Christianity found its way to Sudan in the 1st century as well, and the region's Nubian churches had links to those in Egypt. Some religious scholars believe that Christianity was introduced to Africans by way of the Egyptian city of Alexandria. It was partially due to this that the Roman Empire eventually split into two, east and west. Under Augustus, the two provinces of Africa, Africa Vetus ('Old Africa') and Africa Nova ('New Africa'), were merged to form Africa Proconsularis (named for it being governed by a Roman proconsul). It was a direct statement against Roman rule. In Africa Proconsularis and its neighbors, there was a resonance to traditional Gods through the concept of a supreme being. They were followed in turn by the Methodists and the Roman Catholics. Reformers in the missionary churches, as well as independent church leaders, agitated for changes in the institutionalized church. Origen was a prolific writer, had the ear of Roman royalty, and succeeded Clement of Alexandria as head of the School of Alexandria. Christianity was well established in Alexandria by the end of the first century C.E. The third key factor in the spread of Christianity through North Africa was the resentment of the population to Roman administration, particularly the imposition of taxes, and the demand that the Roman Emperor be worshiped akin to a God. Cities like Carthage (now a suburb of Tunis, Tunisia), Utica, Hadrumetum (now Sousse, Tunisia), Hippo Regius (now Annaba, Algeria) had as many as 50,000 inhabitants. In this series we’ll briefly look at 10 reasons for Christianity’s rapid spread during its first few centuries. 1. The oldest of these churches is the Tewahedo which enjoys a membership of around 45 to 50 million people. It has served as the birth place for many cultures and religions. ), aka Clement of Alexandria, was a Hellenistic theologian and the first president of the Catechetical School of Alexandria. The Montanists were harsh moralists, but even they proved to lax for Tertullian in the end, and he founded his own sect a few years before 220 C.E. Its Fertile Crescent contained one of the earliest culture hearths where civilization developed. Nevertheless, understanding the social, cultural, and religious factors that influenced the spread of the faith doesn’t make the ultimate cause of the movement any less supernatural in nature. Some of his beliefs about the transmigration of souls and universal reconciliation (or apokatastasis, a belief that all men and women, and even Lucifer, would ultimately be saved), were declared heretical in 553 C.E., and he was posthumously excommunicated by the Council of Constantinople in 453 C.E. In 1900, nine million Christians lived in Africa compared to the 380 million in 2000. Two factors that could inhibit the further spread of Christianity are:Faith. African Christianity thus blossomed from the seeds planted by western Missionaries, and it developed its cultural identity. Christianity enjoys widespread popularity in Africa particularly in the nations situated in the Southeast, Southern, and Central regions of the continent. Missions has been a part of Africa’s story since just after Jesus ascended into heaven. Outlets for the North African churches. when, and the Roman Empire king Ezana of Church... 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