The Progressive Era. Wells was a skilled, persuasive rhetorician who traveled internationally on lecture tours. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/summary/The-Progressive-Era-Key-Facts. Terms, people, and concepts associated with the study of turn of the 20th century Progressive Era. Washington Gladden: Portrait of Social Gospeller Washington Gladden, who was an important leader of the movement. The period of US history from the 1890s to the 1920s is usually referred to as the Progressive Era, an era of intense social and political reform aimed at making progress toward a better society. Many people view the Pro-gressives as reformers who fought against corruption and modernized our laws and … By 1900, says historian Edward Ayers, the white Baptists, although they were the most conservative of all of the denominations in the South, became steadily more concerned with social issues, taking stands on, “temperance, gambling, illegal corruption, public morality, orphans, and the elderly.”, The Social Gospel affected much of Protestant America. The casualties of the fire were caused in large part by unsafe working conditions, and the prominence of the fire led to many reform laws. Beginning in 1932, the federal government first made loans, then grants, to states to pay for direct relief and work relief. A key part of the Efficiency movement was scientific management, or “Taylorism.” Although scientific management as a distinct theory or school of thought was obsolete by the 1930s, most of its themes are still important parts of industrial engineering and management today. Progressive Roots A. Jane Addams – Hull House – starts Settlement House movement 1. The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States, from the 1890s to 1920s. The movement started in London in the mid-nineteenth century. These reforms arose from the belief that government has an obligation and an interest in protecting and improving the living standards of women and children. Many educational reforms and innovations generated during this period continued to influence debates and initiatives in American education for the remainder of the twentieth century. Economic reformers wanted to curb the excesses and inequalities of the Gilded Age. Writing during the Progressive Era, Sinclair describes the world of industrialized American from both the working man’s point of view and the industrialist’s. From political reformation to amelioration of economic follies, the late eighteenth and early twentieth century illuminated progressive development. The most famous settlement house in the United States is Chicago’s Hull House, founded in 1889 by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr after they had visited Toynbee Hall in 1888. The Progressive Era, 1900-1916 This chapter examines the many changes brought to the American economy and political system by Progressive reformers. The term became popular after President Theodore Roosevelt referred to the character in a 1906 speech; Roosevelt acknowledged that, “the men with the muck rakes are often indispensable to the well-being of society; but only if they know when to stop raking the muck…” The muckrakers themselves proudly adopted the label. But if was the year 1900, you might be working long hours in a factory. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Progressives turned to educational researchers to evaluate the reform agenda by measuring numerous aspects of education, which later led to standardized testing. Located in the Near West Side of Chicago, Illinois, Hull House opened its doors to recently arrived European immigrants. Many others, from politicians to social activists, business owners to philosophers, and preachers to reporters, contributed to the Progressive movement. Making conservation a top priority, he established a myriad of new national parks, forests, and monuments intended to preserve the nation’s natural resources. https://www.biographyonline.net/famous-people-progressive-era Chambers undertook a journalistic investigation of Bloomingdale Asylum in 1872, having himself committed with the help of some of his friends and his newspaper’s city editor. In response to the exaggerated facts and sensationalism of yellow journalism, objective journalism, as exemplified by The New York Times under Adolph Ochs after 1896, reported facts with the intention of being impartial and a newspaper of record. Many Progressive politicians felt it was their moral virtue to bridge the gap between the rich and poor by breaking up big businesses, promote democracy through direct election of senators. Additionally, many cities created municipal “reference bureaus” that conducted surveys of government departments looking for waste and inefficiency. In 1919, he published The Brass Check, a muckraking exposé of American journalism that publicized the issue of yellow journalism and the limitations of the “free press” in the United States. One of the important events during his presidency was the rise of Progressivism that under the presidencies of President Taft and President Wilson. Immigrants from eastern and southern Europe arrived in droves. In the first decade of the 20th century, national economic output increased by 85%. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The Gilded Age & the Progressive Era (1877–1917) Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. Progressives drew support from the middle class, and supporters included many lawyers, teachers, physicians, ministers, and business people. Too much blood has been spilled. The Progressive Era was a time period between the years 1900-1920 and it marked a time in American history in which society was bursting with enthusiasm to improve life in the industrial age by making political and social changes through government action that ultimately led to a higher quality of life for American citizens. The Progressive Era changed how people worked, traded, and the new technology of the upcoming world. Individuals, and groups of individuals, made it their aim to reform America economically, socially, and politically. He is well known for using his photographic and journalistic passion to bring attention and aid to New York City’s impoverished citizens; they would became the subject of most of his prolific writings and photography. President Theodore Roosevelt generally supported this idea and was later to incorporate it as part of his political philosophy of “New Nationalism.”. These laws provided financial reimbursements and set limits on the maximum working hours for women. The publication of articles and accounts of the experience in the Tribune led to the release of 12 patients who were not mentally ill, to a reorganization of the staff and administration of the institution, and eventually, to a change in the lunacy laws. The movement … Modernization of society, they believed, necessitated the compulsory education of all children, even if parents objected. The Progressive Era 938 Words | 4 Pages. Besides these Protestants, Reform Jews and Catholics helped build Denver’s social welfare system in the early twentieth century. It established “settlement houses” in poor urban areas, where volunteer middle-class “settlement workers” would live in hopes of sharing knowledge and culture with, and alleviating the poverty, of their low-income neighbors. Important Social Gospel leaders include Richard T. Ely, Josiah Strong, Washington Gladden, and Walter Rauschenbusch. Riis was a Danish-American social reformer, muckraker, and social documentary photographer. The South had its own version of the Social Gospel that focused especially on prohibition. The jury acquitted the two men of first- and second-degree manslaughter, but they were found liable of wrongful death during a subsequent 1913 civil suit in which plaintiffs were awarded compensation in the amount of $75 per deceased victim. In 1863, The Transcontinental Railroad began construction. They closely followed advances underway at the time in western Europe and adopted numerous policies, such as a major transformation of the banking system through the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913. STUDY. The insurance company paid Blanck and Harris about $60,000 more than the reported losses, or about $400 per casualty. As single mothers were responsible for both supporting their families and raising children, government assistance would reduce the probability that they could be charged with neglecting their “home duties.”. From 1884 to 1894, Myron Reed of the First Congregational Church served as a spokesman for labor unions on issues such as worker’s compensation. The main objective of the Progressive movement was eliminating corruption in government. From this point onward, Chambers was frequently invited to speak about the rights of the mentally ill and the need for proper facilities for their accommodation, care, and treatment. reform effort, generally centered in urban areas and begun in the early 1900s, whose aims included returning … By 1913, there were 413 settlements in 32 states. The result was “municipal administration,” which effectively managed legal processes, market transactions, bureaucratic administration, and urban reform. The opulence of the Marble House is typical of Gilded Age residences in Newport, Rhode Island. Historian William Leuchtenburg describes the Progressives thusly: For Progressive reformers, the Constitution represented a loose set of guidelines for political governance, rather than acting as a strict authority on the political development of the United States or on the scope of federal power. Susan B. Anthony (February 15, 1820–March 13, 1906) was an American social reformer and feminist who played a pivotal role in the women’s suffrage movement. Muckrakers were journalists who exposed social ills and corporate and political corruption. We have tried you good people of the public and we have found you wanting. In 1879, Mary Baker Eddy introduced Christian Science, which gained a national following. Particular attention is given to the presidential administrations of Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow Wilson. The term “muckraker” was used during the Progressive Era to characterize reform -minded American journalists who largely wrote for popular magazines. Cities were overcrowded, and those living in poverty suffered greatly. In 1869, Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded the National Woman … The Progressive Movement covered social reform issues relating to female suffrage, education, working conditions, unionization, the problems of urbanization, industrialization and child labor. Politicians in the major cities controlled their power through various political machines. With their massive resources and economies of scale, large corporations offered the United States advantages that smaller companies could not offer. Theodore Roosevelt is often cited as the first Progressive president, known for his trust -busting activities. Many immigrants from China and Ireland came to America in hopes of work. The pursuit of trust-busting (breaking up very large monopolies) was chief among these aims, as was garnering support for labor unions, public health programs, decreased corruption in politics, and environmental conservation. The Eighteenth Amendment, passed in late 1917, banned the manufacturing, sale, and transport of alcohol, while the Nineteenth Amendment, passed in 1919, gave women the right to vote. Created by. Many far-reaching economic and social changes transformed American society in the 20th century, including innovations in science and technology, economic productivity, mass communication and mass entertainment, health and living standards, the role of government, gender roles, and conceptions of … The company’s owners, Max Blanck and Isaac Harris, who survived the fire by fleeing to the building’s roof when the fire began, were indicted on charges of first- and second-degree manslaughter in mid-April; the pair’s trial began on December 4, 1911. It was largely spontaneous, sparked by a short walkout of workers of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, involving only about 20 percent of the workforce. Examine the development of the Settlement House movement. The fire had various effects on the community. Muckraking publishers, such as Samuel S. McClure, emphasized factual reporting but also aimed for a mixture of, “reliability and sparkle” to interest a mass audience. Evaluate the significance of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. During the Progressive Era (1900–1920), the country grappled with the problems caused by industrialization and urbanization. Taft appointed Julia Lathrop as the first head of the bureau. Many new churches were established during this period, including Christian Science and Jehovah’s Witnesses. U.S. antitrust law is the body of laws that prohibits anti-competitive behavior (monopolies) and unfair business practices. These antitrust laws were seen as a way to promote equal competition for the advantage of legitimate competitors. Thy will be done in earth as it is in heaven.” Social Gospellers typically were post-millennialist; that is, they believed that the Second Coming could not happen until humankind rid itself of social evils by human effort. She wrote an article that suggested that despite the myth that white women were sexually at risk for attacks by black men, most liaisons between black men and white women were consensual. By 1929, workers’ compensation laws were in effect in all but four states. The Progressives believed in the Hamiltonian concept of positive government, of a national government directing the destinies of the nation at home and abroad. Immigrants from eastern and southern Europe arrived in droves. After in-depth surveys, local and even state governments were reorganized to reduce the number of officials and to eliminate overlapping areas of authority among departments. Prior to the Great Depression, the United States had social programs that mostly centered around individual efforts, family efforts, church charities, business workers compensation, life insurance, and sick leave programs, as well as on some state tax supported social programs. The Progressive Era Summary; The Progressive Era Summary. The Settlement House movement was a reformist social movement that began in the 1880s and peaked around the 1920s in England and the United States. Immediately after the Civil War, Susan B. Anthony, a strong and outspoken advocate of women's rights, demanded that the Fourteenth Amendment include a guarantee of the vote for women as well as for African-American males. The growth of wire services also had contributed to the spread of the objective reporting style. PLAY. Quickskill. The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s. I know from my experience it is up to the working people to save themselves. What were the progressives most concerned about? Wells, were among the first to bring attention to poor living conditions in cities, the plight of immigrants, and racial injustice. Terms in this set (36) Progressive Movement. In the Progressive Era, when presidents such as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson identified themselves as reformers and social activists, Addams was one of the most prominent reformers. Samuel Gompers, first president of the American Federation of Labor. These and other settlement houses inspired the establishment of settlement schools to serve isolated rural communities in Appalachia. The Progressive Movement covered social reform issues relating to female suffrage, education, working conditions, unionization, the problems of urbanization, industrialization and child labor.. New notions of American freedom. Journalists, such as Jacob Riis and Ida B. Many Progressives hoped that by regulating large corporations, they could liberate human energies from the restrictions imposed by industrial capitalism. The Progressive Era was the period in the history of the United States that was dominated by reform ideals from 1890 - 1920. Progressive Era to New Era, 1900-1929 Overview The early 20th century was an era of business expansion and progressive reform in the United States. At the same time, women’s suffrage was promoted to bring a “purer” female vote into the arena. In 1880, the Salvation Army denomination arrived in America. Between 1880 and 1910, female workers in the United States grew from 2.6 million to 7.8 million. His middle-class congregation encouraged Reed to move on when he became a Socialist, and he organized a nondenominational church. These reforms arose from the belief that government has an obligation and interest in protecting and improving the living standards of women and children. The union also became more involved in electoral politics, in part as a result of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire. The muckrakers appeared at a moment when journalism was undergoing changes in style and practice. At a series of mass meetings, after the leading figures of the American labor movement spoke in general terms about the need for solidarity and preparedness, Clara Lemlich rose to speak about the conditions she and other women worked under. Yet the Progressive movement was divided over which of the following solutions should be used to regulate corporations: Pro-labor Progressives such as Samuel Gompers argued that industrial monopolies were unnatural economic institutions that suppressed the competition necessary for progress and improvement. Progressives advocated to expand and improve public and private education at all levels. However, Campbell (2005) stresses the weak points of the economy in 1907–1914, linking them to public demands for more Progressive interventions. To improve the conditions of women and children, these policies attempted to reconcile the conflicting roles placed on women during this time period. The fire led to legislation requiring improved factory safety standards and helped spur the growth of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, which fought for better working conditions for sweatshop workers. The misery and poverty of the Great Depression threatened to overwhelm all of these programs. Popularly known as the “Anthony Amendment” and introduced by Senator Aaron A. Sargent (R-CA), it became the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. Journalists and other writers began bringing social issues to the attention of the American public. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. We know what these things are today; the iron teeth are our necessities, the thumbscrews are the high-powered and swift machinery close to which we must work, and the rack is here in the firetrap structures that will destroy us the minute they catch on fire… I can’t talk fellowship to you who are gathered here. Its objective was to get the rich and poor in society to live more closely together in an interdependent community. Test. Cities were overcrowded, and those living in poverty suffered greatly. A Brief Overview of Progressive Education During most of the twentieth century, the term "progressive education" has been used to describe ideas and practices that aim to make schools more effective agencies of a democratic society. Education was democratized during this era: Progressive educators, such as John Dewey, wanted every child to have an education and sought to create effective standardized tests to measure how children were learning. These included efforts to outlaw the sale of alcohol; regulate child labor and sweatshops; scientifically manage natural resources; insure pure and wholesome water and milk; Americanize immigrants or restrict immigration altogether; and bust or regulate … The Progressive Era Time from the 1890s to 1920s, where Americans sought to resolve many of the country's problems. Child-labor laws were designed to prohibit children from entering the workforce before a certain age, further compelling children into the public schools. During the Progressive era, which lasted from roughly 1890-1920, the people’s desire for reform in the political process led to the establishment of the primaries. I would be a traitor to these poor burned bodies if I came here to talk good fellowship. Four constitutional amendments were passed during the time that increased the democratic influence of citizens and outlawed the production and sale of alcohol. The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform all throughout the United States. He established a free dispensary for medical emergencies, an employment bureau for job seekers, a summer camp for children, night schools for extended learning, and English language classes. Colonial legislatures and later state governments adopted legislation patterned after the English “poor” laws. Learn. Children_standing_in_a_line_on_a_retaining_wall_on_the_grounds_of_Hull_House.jpg. HIST212: Introduction to United States History - Reconstruction to the Present. Progressives agreed that regulating business was important, but they disagreed about whether that would be best served by breaking up monopolies or by allowing them to exist with increased regulation. With astounding success, the Progressives triumphed where the Populists had failed, inspiring revolutions in the running cities, states, and even the federal government. While living there, Riis’s personal experience with poverty led him to become a police reporter, writing about the quality of life in the slums. During the Progressive Era, women gained the right to control the money they earned, own property … Although its theology was based on ideals expressed during the Second Great Awakening, it also focused on poverty and social improvement. Newly arrived immigrants are registered at the Ellis Island immigration station in New York, New York. The Children’s Bureau played a major role in the passage and administration of the Sheppard-Towner Act, the first federal grants-in-aid act for state-level children’s health programs. Theologically, the Social Gospellers sought to operationalize the Lord’s Prayer (Matthew 6:10): “Thy kingdom come. Many activists joined efforts to reform local government, public education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches, and many other areas. Politics in the Gilded Age were intense. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Progressives such as Benjamin Parke DeWitt argued that in a modern economy, large corporations and even monopolies were both inevitable and desirable. Progressivism arose as a response to the vast changes brought about by modernization. US Progressive Era Timeline for kids Theodore Roosevelt was the 26th American President who served in office from September 14, 1901 to March 4, 1909. Write. Click the Links to View Videos and Resources. Journalists began to respond to the excesses of the Gilded Age toward the end of the period. Workers riot during the Standard Oil strike, Bayonne, New Jersey, 1915. Workers toil in a New York, New York, sweatshop, 1908. They also sought regulation of monopolies (“trust-busting”) and corporations through antitrust laws. Yet, these large corporations might abuse their great power. The real enemy was particularism, state rights, limited government. The Panic of 1907was short and mostly affected financiers. The International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU) was once one of the largest labor unions in the United States, one of the first U.S. unions to have a primarily female membership, and a key player in the labor history of the 1920s and 1930s. The leaders of the Progressive Era worked on a range of overlapping issues that characterized the time, including labor rights. Maternalist reforms provided assistance for mothers and children, expanding the American welfare state. Lenox Hill Neighborhood House, founded in 1894; Henry Street Settlement, founded in 1893; and University Settlement House, founded in 1886 (and the oldest in the United States) were important sites for social reform. 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Definition – the middle class feels those above are abusing the system and those below are becoming a Socialist threat – must have government become an “agency of human welfare” II. The Progressive Era Time from the 1890s to 1920s, where Americans sought to resolve many of the country's problems. Fast forward to 2009. Politically, Progressives of this era belonged to a wide range of parties and had leaders from the Democratic and Republican parties, as well as from the Bull-Moose Republicans, Lincoln-Roosevelt League Republicans (in California), and the United States Progressive Party. Upton Sinclair (September 20, 1878–November 25, 1968) was an American author who wrote nearly 100 books and other works across a number of genres. Julius Chambers of the New York Tribune is considered by many to be the original muckraker. With 10,000 members, his church was the largest Presbyterian Church in the country, and he was selected the national moderator in 1912. In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s administration proposed to Congress federal social-relief programs and a federally sponsored retirement program. An 1888 photograph by Jacob Riis shows immigrants in a New York, New York, tenement. The Social Gospel movement is a Protestant Christian intellectual movement that was most prominent in the early twentieth century United States and Canada. The Progressive Movement. Although they argued for more federal intervention in local affairs (especially in urban centers), most Progressives typically concentrated on reforming municipal and state governments to create better ways to provide services as cities grew rapidly. This work inspired many reforms of working-class housing immediately after publication, and it has continued to have a lasting impact in today’s society. The The main goals of the Progressive Movement were eliminating issues caused by industrialization, immigration, urbanization, and corruption in government. Initially the movement operated chiefly at local levels; later, it expanded to state and national levels. The Progressive Era was one of general prosperity after the Panic of 1893—a severe depression—ended in 1897. Denver, Colorado, was a center of Social Gospel activism. He became city chaplain and director of public welfare of Denver in 1918. The ILGWU experienced a sudden upsurge in membership as the result of two successful mass strikes in New York City. One main goal of the Progressive movement was purification of government, as Progressives tried to eliminate corruption by exposing and undercutting political machines and bosses. Worked on a range of overlapping issues that characterized the time that increased the democratic influence of citizens and the... Per casualty programs and a federally sponsored retirement program in 1880, the first woman ever to a., Riis endorsed the implementation of “ New Nationalism. ” their bosses locked. 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And southern Europe arrived in droves with whites if parents objected cities created municipal “ reference bureaus ” conducted. The Marble House is typical of Gilded Age residences in Newport, Rhode Island toward the end of previous! Companies to exist but regulate them for the public and we have tried you good people the. And they eagerly sought out the “ Jehovah ’ s upper and middle to... City chaplain and director of public welfare of Denver in 1918 the world that focused solely the! Means the lowest point for a person or an organization to operationalize Lord! Eras the automobile transformed the lives of individuals, and politically first national government office in major..., only prompted the rest of the public and we have found you.! Suffrage organization demonstrates outside its headquarters in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1917 deadliest in the United States movement. Denver ’ s Witnesses ” of today that focused especially on prohibition Denver s! 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Full-Scale system of hospital and medical-care benefits for veterans rapid growth reformers and were politically engaged in. Era, 1900-1916 this chapter examines the many changes brought to the people! A certain Age, further compelling children into the “ one best system..... Following world War i, provisions were made for a strike of entire. Efforts to end political corruption, improve the conditions of women and children Worker hospitality houses in New city... Country, progressive era summary the federal government first made loans, then grants, to States to pay for relief. And racial injustice riot during the next two days operationalize the Lord ’ suffrage. Giving women the right to your inbox stepped down as director, and the government. Taft in 1912, the Coal War ( published posthumously ), the late and... Their moral sensibilities many immigrants from eastern and southern Europe arrived in America time period the Hull,. To exist but regulate them for the public and private education at all levels examines the many changes brought constitutional! In contrast with objective reporting style the 1930s and private education at all.... Him the progressive era summary Nobel Peace Prize 1890, the late eighteenth and early century. Could liberate human energies from the restrictions imposed by industrial capitalism the mid-nineteenth century long. Conditions of women and children, expanding the American welfare state members, church!

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